Preface to European Security:
Beginning a New Century

The XIIIth International NATO Workshop was held in Warsaw, Poland, on 19-23 June 1996 under the patronage of President of Poland Aleksander Kwasniewski. For the third year, General George Joulwan, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, served as the Workshop's Honorary General Chairman. The Workshop theme was "European Security at the Beginning of a New Century." The papers in this volume are based on presentations at the Workshop. In many cases, the views that are expressed are presented on a personal basis. Consequently, these chapters do not necessarily reflect the position of their author's organization or government.

An evening reception and dinner in the Senate Room and State Apartments of the Warsaw Royal Palace, Zamek, opened the Workshop, with addresses by NATO Secretary General Javier Solana and Polish Prime Minister Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz. The beauty of the Zamek Palace was striking, especially since the entire building was destroyed during the Second World War and rebuilt from historical documents, photographs, and artworks including detailed paintings by Canaletto. Before the Palace's systematic destruction, fragments of frescoes, columns, and decorative elements had been rescued- in the bitter winter cold and possibly at the risk of their lives- by directors and staff members of the National Museum and by Polish architects and art historians who sought to save their country's cultural heritage. UNESCO has appropriately placed the Zamek Palace on its list of cultural treasures. We are grateful for the assistance of Professor Andrzej Rotermund, Director of the Palace, who gave the Workshop almost unprecedented access for the opening events.

The Workshop sessions began the next morning with special presentations by Polish President Kwasniewski, President of Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev, SACEUR General Joulwan and a panel of SACEUR's major subordinate commanders: Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Johns KCB CBE LVO, Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Northwestern Europe; General Dieter Stöckmann, Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Central Europe; Admiral Leighton Smith, Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe; and General Sir Jeremy Mackenzie KCB OBE, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe.

Other important Workshop events included an address by United States Deputy Secretary of Defense John White at Lazienki Palace and an address by Czech President Václav Havel at the Warsaw National Theater following a ballet in celebration of Warsaw's 400th anniversary as Poland's capital and a dinner hosted by Polish President Kwasniewski. The Workshop ended at Pultusk Castle, with luncheon remarks by Defense Minister Stanislaw Dobrzanski of Poland.

Adding to the beauty of the Zamek Palace Senate Room and State Apartments, the Island Theater of the Lazienki Palace, and Pultusk Castle were performances at Zamek by Warszawska Sinfonietta; at Lazienki by the Polish Army Dance Ensemble and the National Board of Polish Students' Folkloric Ensembles ORSZPIT; and at Pultusk by the national folk song and dance ensemble Mazowsze. These facilities were available thanks to Director Marek Kwiatowski and Ewa Gora of Lazienki, Director Professor Krzysztof Torunczyk of the National Theater, and Director Grzegorz Russak of Pultusk Castle.

Additional major Workshop speakers and participants included Estonian Prime Minister Tiit Vähi (attending his third Workshop), Danish Defense Minister Hans Hækkerup, U.S. Under Secretary of Defense Paul Kaminski, U.K. Second Permanent Undersecretary of State Sir Moray Stewart, German Ambassador Dr. Hermann Freiherr von Richthofen, Icelandic Ambassador Thorsteinn Ingolfsson, U.S. Ambassador Robert Hunter, NATO Military Committee Chairman General Klaus Naumann, military representatives to the NATO Military Committee, Foreign Minister Valdis Birkavs of Latvia, Defense Minister György Keleti of Hungary, Foreign Minister Dr. László Kovács of Hungary, Defense Minister Andrus Öövel of Estonia, Foreign Minister Dariusz Rosati of Poland, Foreign Minister Juraj Schenk of the Slovak Republic, Defense Minister Anneli Taina of Finland, Foreign Minister Hennadiy Udovenko of Ukraine, Finnish Under Secretary of State Jaako Blomberg, Polish State Secretary Andrzej Karkoszka, Romanian State Secretary Mircea Pascu, Czech First Deputy Minister of Defense RNDr. Petr Necas, and Czech First Vice Minister Alexandr Vondra. State Secretary Ignac Golob was very welcome as the first representative of Slovenia to participate in the Workshop.

In addition to participation by General Tadeusz Wilecki, the Chief of Defense of Poland, and Admiral Hans Garde, Chief of Defense of Denmark-who has since died tragically in an aircraft accident in the Færoe Islands-other important military contributions were made by Commander-in-Chief U.S. Army Europe General William W. Crouch, SACEUR Representative Major General Claus Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, and Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Representative Vice Admiral Michael Gretton. There were contributions by many active and retired general officers of NATO and Partner countries.

This year's Workshop was significant because of the enthusiastic support of President Kwasniewski and the entire Polish government, and also because of the Workshop's unusual timing-the Workshop was held as the city celebrated its 400th year as the capital of Poland, as Russia conducted two rounds of voting that ultimately led to President Yeltsin's re-election, and as the Alliance prepared for discussions and a fall Ministerial meeting at which important decisions are to be announced concerning the opening of NATO to new members. The fine Polish government support, the timing, and the not-for-attribution nature of the Workshop discussions led to feelings of mutual cooperation, trust, and warm friendship among all of the participants. As a result, this XIIIth Workshop marked-in a small but real way-an historic step forward by Poland and other Central European countries on the path to integration into Western institutions, including NATO, in the not very distant future.

With the enthusiasm of Polish President Kwasniewski, Defense Minister Dobrzanski, and especially State Secretary Andrzej Karkoszka, the Polish government's support for the Workshop was perfect in every respect. Other Polish contributors were State Secretary Jerzy Milewski, State Secretary Andrzej Towpik, and State Secretary Wojciech Lamentowicz. The Polish Secretary of State's "Operating Team" was led by State Secretary Karkoszka and Colonel Kazimir Sikorski, with the help of Colonel Jozef Aleksy (external events), Colonel Hieronim Idziak (spouses' program), Colonel A. Zajac, Ms. Katarzyna Rud, Ms. Jolanta Sadowska, and Mgr. Piotr Piatkowki (conference room coordination). In the months of preparation preceding the Workshop, State Secretary Karkoszka participated daily in every major decision by the Polish Government; at the Workshop, he was present at every event and chaired the session on Central European Security. The responsibility for the Workshop's success rested as well on the shoulders of Colonel Sikorski, and on his energy and organizational skill. Colonel Sikorski is now at the Polish Embassy in Brussels, where he will continue to strengthen the growing links between Poland and NATO. Other staff contributions were by Lieutenant Colonel Andrzej Bienkowski, S. Filipczak, Adam Daca, Jaroslaw Glowacz, Jozef Gomolka, Maria Grozdow, Slawomir Magier, Czeslaw Mikolajczyk, Zygmunt Milaszewski, Piotr Naglik, Witold Przewuski, Anna Skoczek, Edward Stangreciak, Adam Stasinski, Janusz Strzelecki, Krzysztof Szymanski, Grzegorz Jedraszczak, Janusz Urbaniak, Stanislaw Lopuszanski, and Special Advisor Wisniewski. We especially appreciate the excellent security protection that was provided by the Polish government. And we thank the Zamek Museum, Agencja Fotograficzna Orleta, and photographer Maciej Bronarski, for the cover photographs for this volume. Orbis Director Grazyna Paczesna handled many Workshop functions on behalf of the Polish government, including arrangements for meeting participants at the Warsaw airport, transportation to Workshop events, and such dinner arrangements as those at the National Theater. At MAVO Film and Television Productions, Director Wojciech Mandrewicz prepared a fine video of the Workshop which has been distributed to participants.

We warmly thank Ambassador Andrzej Krzeczunowicz, Polish Ambassador to the NACC. He was the first to propose that a NATO Workshop be held in Poland, and his wife, Nika, was the "architect" of the spouses' trip to Cracow (which was ultimately made possible by President Kwaskiewski's loan of his Presidential aircraft).

In its preparations for the NATO Workshop, the Polish government received sponsorship support from four Polish companies: Bumar-Labedy Company Plc (represented by President of the Board Mr. Henryk Pfeifer), Industry Center of Optics at Warsaw (represented by President of the Board Mr. Roman Lukaszewski), PZL-Swidnik (represented by Mr. Mieczyslaw Majewski), and Steelworks "Stalowa Wola" PLC (represented by President of the Board Adam Franczak). Warsaw Initiative funds were made available with help from the United States Ambassador to Poland Nicholas Rey.

Many other organizations have contributed to the NATO Workshop. The major sponsors of the Workshop, which is now in its fourteenth year, include the Government of Poland; Alenia a Finmeccanica Company S.p.A.; Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I); Association of the United States Army; Ballistic Missile Defense Organization; The Boeing Company; Celsius Industrier; Defense Special Weapons Agency (formerly called the Defense Nuclear Agency); Georgia Institute of Technology; Hughes Aircraft Company; Lockheed Martin; McDonnell Douglas Corporation; MITRE Corporation; National Defense University; Net Assessment; Northrop Grumman; Rockwell; Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe; TERMA Elektronik AS; TRW Systems Integration Group; United Technologies; and the Governments of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway and Portugal, and the Italian Ministry of Defense. We also appreciate the contributions of the Canadian Armed Forces and those of Associate Sponsors GEC-Marconi and Raytheon International Inc.

The NATO Workshop Advisory Board, whose members are listed below, has provided valued leadership and includes representatives of many of the sponsoring organizations:

His Excellency Aleksander Kwasniewski, President of the Republic of Poland
Past Patron:
His Excellency Volker Rühe; Minister of Defense of Germany
Board of Advisors:
Mr. Thomas M. Brennan, Vice President, Boeing Defense and Space Group
General Peter Carstens, Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
Dr. Ing. Fausto Cereti, Former President, Alenia a Finmeccanica S.p.A. Company
Lieutenant General Paul Cerjan (Ret.), Former President, National Defense University
Air Chief Marshal Sir David Evans (Ret.), GCB, CBE, CBIM, British Aerospace Plc
Major General Kenneth L. Hagemann (Ret.), Former Director of Defense Nuclear Agency
Mr. Robert Hermann, Vice President, United Technologies
Admiral James R. Hogg (Ret.), Director of Strategic Studies Group, United States Navy
Dr. Frank B. Horton III, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I)
Lieutenant General Giuseppe Degli Innocenti, Italian Military Representative to NATO Military Committee
General George Joulwan, Supreme Allied Commander Europe
State Secretary Andrzej Karkoszka, First Deputy Minister of Defense of Poland
His Excellency Dr. László Kovács, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary
Ambassador Andrzej Krzeczunowicz, Polish Ambassador to North Atlantic Cooperation Council
General Jack N. Merritt (Ret.), President, Association of the United States Army
General Klaus Naumann, Chairman of NATO Military Committee
Lieutenant General Malcolm R. O'Neill (Ret.), Former Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization
Vice Admiral John T. Parker (Ret.), President, J. T. Parker Associates, Inc.
Mr. John Quilty, Senior Vice President, MITRE Corporation
Ambassador Dr. Hermann Freiherr von Richtofen, German Ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
General John Shalikashvili, Chairman of United States Joint Chiefs of Staff
Lieutenant General Jörn Söder (Ret.), Former German Military Representative to NATO Military Committee
State Secretary Andrzej Towpik, Polish Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs
His Excellency Tiit Vähi, Prime Minister of Estonia
Field Marshal Sir Richard Vincent (Ret.) GBE KCB DSO, Former Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
Mr. Alexandr Vondra, First Vice Foreign Minister of the Czech Republic
Lieutenant General Klaus Wiesmann, German Military Representative to NATO Military Committee

Few have mattered more to the Workshop than General Jack Merritt, who was Honorary General Chairman of two NATO Workshops and both directly and indirectly contributed to the success of the last eleven of them. General Merritt is currently the President of the Association of the United States Army.

Alenia a Finmeccanica S.p.A. Company, which has supported the Workshops since the VIIth annual meeting at Lake Orta in Italy, is the senior European industry sponsor. We especially appreciate the help and support of Alenia's new President Giorgio Zappa and of Colonel Aldo Ferraguto, who represented Alenia at the last two Workshops. Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I) Dr. Barry Horton III, Deputy Assistant Secretary Dr. James E. Soos, and Salvatore Manno contributed both to the C3I dimension of the Workshop and to the coordination of senior U.S. Department of Defense participation. Dr. Horton arranged for Deputy Secretary of Defense John White to address the Workshop as Secretary William Perry's representative. Dr. Horton also allowed Tamara Mitchem of his staff to assist us as a Workshop staff member in Warsaw.

As Director of the Studies Analysis and Gaming Division (J-8) at the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Colonel Stanley Gorenc participated in both the Dresden and Warsaw Workshops and arranged for Lieutenant Colonel Scott Salyers to assist us in Warsaw as a key Workshop staff member. We are grateful for the continued interest demonstrated by Technical Director Vince Roske.

Lieutenant General Malcolm R. O'Neill, Director of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and Deputy for Strategic Relations Dr. J. David Martin arranged for the DNA/BMDO Joint Session with Under Secretary of Defense Paul Kaminski and chaired by Major General Gary Curtin. Both Dr. Martin and Michael Kamin represented BMDO in Warsaw. Throughout the year, Kitty Stepp of BMDO was always ready.

The Boeing Company was represented by Thomas M. Brennan, Vice President of the Boeing Defense and Space Group, and by Robert Draper, Vice President Europe of Boeing International. Thomas Brennan has now joined the Workshop Advisory Board. We appreciate the continued support of C. G. Jerry King, President of Boeing Defense and Space Group, and the help of Michele Soukin who assisted us in Warsaw as a Workshop staff member.

Celsius Industrier of Sweden was represented by Vice President Borje Johanson. The involvement of Celsius Industrier has encouraged other Scandinavian official and industrial participation. Lieutenant General Paul Addy, Canadian Military Representative to the NATO Military Committee, chaired the final Workshop session this year and also arranged for Manon Van der Horden, a member of his staff, to help us in Warsaw.

This was the eleventh Workshop in which the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) has participated as a principal sponsor. Over the years, the DSWA (under its previous name of Defense Nuclear Agency) has probably been the most influential of all the workshop sponsors. Speakers invited by DSWA to participate in past Workshops include: former Secretaries of Defense Les Aspin, Harold Brown, and James Schlesinger, former Secretary of State and former SACEUR Alexander Haig, former SACEURs General Andrew Goodpaster and General Bernard Rogers, former Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman General John Vessey, and former Ambassador to the U.N. Jean Kirkpatrick. Director Major General Gary L. Curtin is continuing that tradition. This year's joint DSWA/BMDO joint session, chaired by General Curtin, included presentations by U.S. Under Secretary of Defense Dr. Paul Kaminski and by government and industry leaders. Rear Admiral D.A. Weiss, the agency's Director for Operations, gave his wisdom and time throughout the year to help with the Workshop planning, and Major General Randall Peat participated in the Workshop discussions. Other DSWA assistance came from Colonel John Koval, Lieutenant Colonel Raymond Bull, and William Daitch, our principal contact point at DSWA. In DSWA Acquisitions, Edward Archer and David Staudt were truly helpful. Former Director Major General Kenneth Hagemann and his wife Jean contributed to the planning of President Havel's dinner address at the National Theater.

From GEC-Marconi, now an associate sponsor of the Workshop, Vice Admiral The Hon Sir Nicholas Hill-Norton, Defense Advisor, participated for the first time since his retirement from the U.K. military and was much appreciated. The Workshop's principal university sponsor was the Georgia Institute of Technology. Brigadier General James Allen represented the Georgia Tech Research Institute while Professor Robert Kennedy represented the University. Professor Michael Salomone, Dr. Daniel Papp, and President Dr. Wayne Clough gave valued advice and support, although Georgia Tech's responsibilities at the Atlanta Olympic Games prevented their participation this year.

At Hughes Aircraft Company, we would like to express our thanks to Robin Beard, Chairman of Hughes Europe s.a.-n.v., and W. R. Frederick of Hughes Europe. Mr. John D. Largent, our key point of contact at Hughes Europe for several years, was a pleasure to work with. We especially appreciate the support of Norman Augustine of Lockheed Martin for agreeing to sponsor the Workshop after an absence of several years, and the Workshop participation of Robert Clifford, President of Lockheed Martin International (Central and Eastern Europe), Vice Presidents Grady Jordan and Robert A. Watters, as well as Bruce Jackson of the Corporate staff.

At McDonnell Douglas, Senior Vice President Thomas Gunn, Vice President (Development) Gary Mears, Deputy Program Manager Mark Franzblau and Marketing Manager Fred Spivey were very helpful contributors to the Workshop. McDonnell Douglas sponsored the Workshop for the first time this year. At MITRE Corporation, Vice President John Quilty has participated in the NATO Workshop Series and as a member of the Board of Advisors for a full decade. Helen Quilty helped us plan the spouses trip to Cracow. John Quilty continues to focus our attention on important technology and policy issues. The contributions of Lieutenant General Ervin J. Rokke, President of the National Defense University (NDU), as well as those of Vice President William Graham Walker, Hans Binnendijk (Director, Institute for National Strategic Studies), former NDU President Lieutenant General Paul G. Cerjan, and Dr. Stuart Johnson, were vital given NDU's unique role as a university and very influential source of policy advice within the U.S. Department of Defense.

Director of Net Assessment Andrew Marshall has been a principal advisor since the first Workshop. During that thirteen year period, the Workshop has evolved dramatically from the discussion of command and control issues in Naval operational decision making to the somewhat theoretical and even academic issues in political-military decision making and to the discussion of such Cold War issues as the use of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe. In more recent years, the Workshop's emphasis has been on the development of Partnership for Peace, the enlargement of NATO, and the desire to establish special relations with such countries as Ukraine and Russia that are not currently candidates for NATO membership. Rebecca Caudill of Andrew Marshall's office has greatly smoothed the administration of our contract.

The Chief Executive Officer of Northrop Grumman, Kent Kresa, as well as Corporate Vice President William James, Vice President Harry Pearce, and Thomas Darcy have continued to be enthusiastic supporters of the Workshop, and sponsors as well. We value the long-term participation of Brigadier General Robert Norman (Ret.) of Raytheon International.

We appreciate the support at Rockwell International of Pat Hall, Director of International Trade Relations, and consultant Nolan Stripling. Rockwell International sponsored the Workshop for the first time this year.

In addition to Denmark's Defense Minister, Chief of Defense, and other official participants, Denmark was represented by Major General Ole Fogh (Ret.) who attended again this year as the representative of TERMA Elektronik AS. At TRW Systems Integration Group, Vice President International Phillip R. Trapp, John Nowacek, and Frank Wiemann participated in Warsaw and helped in other ways. United Technologies was represented by Senior Vice President Robert Hermann, who, like Andrew Marshall, participated in the first Workshop 13 years ago. David Manke, President of United Technologies International, also contributed this year as a member of Major General Gary Curtin's DSWA/BMDO Joint Panel.

Because of the special importance of the Russian Federation to European security, we are grateful for the participation of Evgueni Kojokin, Director of Russia's Institute of Strategic Studies. NATO's relationships with international organizations are equally vital, and we therefore appreciate the participation of Ambassador Horst Holthoff and Peter Hess of the Western European Union, John Renninger of the United Nations, and Sergio Vieira de Mello, Assistant U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. Austria's Workshop participation has been growing thanks to Ambassador Eric Hochleitner and Lieutenant General Ernest Koenig, Commandant of the Austrian Defense Academy. U.S. Ambassador to Austria Swanee Hunt participated in the Workshop for the first time this year.

The Workshop's international staff members, who worked very closely and effectively with their Polish counterparts, included Minister Counselor Mike Durkee in a senior policy role, Lieutenant Colonel Paul Markowicz (now the U.S. Defense Attache in Slovakia), Colonel Roger Rains (Ret.), and Lieutenant Colonel Eugene Moseley of the College of Aerospace Doctrine Research & Education, who helped especially in the financial planning area. We are particularly grateful for the hard work, dedication, and leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Scott Salyers of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. His planning and organizational work were so vital to key Workshop events that he sometimes worked through the night without sleep. Captain Jeff Malcolm from the staff of Major General Claus Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Sergeant First Class Dana Davis, Sergeant Paul Zinck, and SrA Rhonda Singletary also worked for long hours that often approached those of Colonel Salyers. It would be difficult to find anyone more dedicated than this group, which also included Tamara Mitchem, who was "loaned" by the OASD for C3I. We also thank Boeing for Michele Soukin's help during the four days of the Workshop. In addition, Anne Baylon and Ania Garlitski of the Center for Strategic Decision Research were involved in the full year of planning leading up to the Warsaw Workshop. Shortly after the Workshop, Ania was admitted to Medical School at the University of Vermont where she is now a first year student. Brigadier Harry Brown (Ret.) provided helpful suggestions based on his work in SHAPE's Policy Division, and Lieutenant Colonel Mark Morgan is now playing a central role in our planning for the XIVth Workshop in Prague. We also appreciate SHAPE's help in providing a Boeing 707 aircraft that brought a large group of senior NATO officials and military commanders from Brussels to Warsaw.

The Workshop sessions were held at the Victoria Intercontinental Hotel, which is perfectly located near the Royal Castle, Old Town, and the National Theater. The hotel's conference facilities were first class. Even more important was the excellent support we received from the Victoria's entire management and staff, including General Manager Marek Stopczyk, Sales Manager Boguslaw Stepniak, and Assistant Sales Manager Iwona Bartuszek. The microphones as well as the translation, recording, and other equipement provided by Eurocongress Centrum worked perfectly.

This book was put in final form by Anne Baylon at Strategic Decisions Press, with the very professional assistance of editorial consultant Carol Whiteley, who carefully reviewed each chapter, and Alice Kleeman, who did a large part of the word processing as well as transcriptions from audio tapes when required. Jackie Baum contributed her administrative skills to the project. Linotext in Palo Alto, California, performed the Linotronic typesetting work, while Scribner Graphic Press of Menlo Park did the printing on its Heidelberg SORDZ and MOV presses.

Finally, we wish to thank all the representatives of the sponsoring organizations and, of course, Czech President Václav Havel for his invitation to hold the XIVth NATO Workshop in Prague.

Menlo Park, California
September 1996

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